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MBA IT/MCA Question bank

MBA IT/MCA Question bank (5)

MBA IT/MCA Question bank

Windows Proagramming
1)Write an event procedure to find and display the string - length of an input string.

2) Create a simple VB application to simulate the billing application of a gas - agency. The bill should contain the bill-no (auto generated), date and time also. Design the
user - interface with appropriate controls. Also, design the splash - screen for this

3)Write an event procedure to sort list of n - numbers in ascending order. Design an user - friendly interface for the application with appropriate controls.

4)Create a simple VB application to simulate the generation of a LIC premium receipt . The premium receipt should contain the Policy No. date, time, details of the policy, name of the policy holder, address and amount. Design the splash screen for this application.

5) Write an event procedure to concatenate two strings given as input and should display the resultant string. Use appropriate controls to design the user-interface.

6) Create a VB application to simulate the menu-design NOTE-PAD. Note : No need of doing any programming for the application menu - design is enough

7) Create a form with a picture-box. Find 3 interesting pictures and use a timer control to cycle these 3 pictures every one second. Place an exit button to close the application.

8) Write an event procedure to display the type of the triangle, given the measurements of its 3 sides by the user.

9) Create a form where the user enters some text into a text-box control and have the result
output into a label in a different font with the colour change in the background of the form.

10) Write an event procedure to collect an ,integer from the user and find out whether the given
integer is an odd integer or an even one. Design a splash screen for this application. Use
appropriate controls on the form.

11) Collect the first name, middle name and the last name from the user on three separate
, text-boxes and display the user's short J name.

12) Write a Visula Basic program to compute the FV (Future Value)of an investment. The formula
to be used is as follows :
FV - Investment * (1 + Interest rate ) years
Also, design a splash screen for this application. Use appropriate controls to design the User

13) Design a simple application DVD's, writing pads, pens, wherever necessary. to generate a bill for a stationery shop which sells books, CD's, pencils and other stationery items. Assumptions can be made

14) create a VB program to introduce yourself should provide the complete information appropriate controls on the form. to the lab faculty. when the program is run,it about yourself. Design a good interface with

15) Create a VB application to simulate a simple calculator to perform the arithmetic operations like addition , multiplication , division and finding out percentage, Select and place appropriate controls on the form to provide user - friendly interface . 

Create a menu similar to that of a note-pad application using menu editor 

16) Create VB application to calculate and display the Gross-pay ,Deductions and the Net-pay for the employees of the company , given the Basic Pay, TA , DA, Perks, HRA and deductions(GPF, medical contribution , pension scheme , loans).The pay-slip should consist of all the details of the employee along with the pay details . Consider the following details for calculating the DA,HRA perks, allowances.

TA=RS800/ for the employees
DA=40% of basic pay
Perks =3% of basic pay
HRA = 30% of basic pay

17) Create a VB application to check whether the given string is a palindrome or not.

18) Create a simple application to simulate the billing system for an automobile spare parts shop .Also design the splash screen for this application. The UI should be user-friendly with appropriate controls.

19) Create a VB application which will display the string-length for a given string.


 1. (a) Design an algorithm and draw a 6 corresponding flow chart to convert binary

number to hexadecimal number.


(b)Write a shell program to find Greatest 6 Common Divisor (GCD) for the two given



(  c  ) Compare and contrast the disk space management methods, the linked list with

Bitmap method.


(d) Construct context-free grammar for conditional expression in "C" language.

(Example : x = (y < z) ? y : z;)


(e) Explain the differences between internal and external fragmentation.

 2. (a) Explain the differences between the following :


(i) Third generation and fourth  generation languages.


(ii)  Function and subroutine.


(iii) Compiler and Interpreter.

(iv)  Discuss the functionality and 4 implementation of two pass assemble:.


3. (a) Discuss the similarities and differences  between paging and segmentation.


(b) What is the basic philosophy of X-Windows ? How is it different from the

rest of GUIs ?

 4. (a) Define UNIX command for the following :


(i)  To count the number of users who are currently logged in.


(ii)  To change the password.


(iii) To shut down the system at a particular time.

 (iv) To print the file names and their file

sizes in the current directory.


(v) To terminate the particular process.


 (b) List the major activities performed in the development of a software product. Also

mention the limitations of the development cycle.


 5. (a) Explain the important features of CASE tools.


(b) What are conditions that characterize deadlock ? Explain the occurrence and

avoidance of deadlock graphically among 3 processes and 3 resources.


 6 . (a)  Write a shell program to find the greatest prime number less than L00.


 (b) Consider the following processes in the ready queue; assuming that all processes

entered the queue at the same time


Calculate the average turnaround time and average waiting time by using :


(i)  Round Robin (quantum:2) algorithm


(ii) SIF scheduling algorithm.


( c  ) What is Compiler ?   Explain the Compiler design phases in brief.


(d) Explain the qualities of software product and process in brief.


(e)Write a brief note on demand paging and segmentation.





(b) Write qualities and key attributes that are essential for a system analyst. What is a

CASE tool and how it is relevant in software engineering ? Give examples.


 8.  (a) What is loader? Explain different loading schemes in brief.

 (b)  Give features of UNIX environment.


9.  (a) Explain the following UNIX commands :

(i)  tee

(ii) cat

(iit) comm

(i") pwd


(b) Explain the file and directory structure in UNIX. Draw diagrams in support of your



 10.  (a)  Write a short note on 4GL. What are its limitations ?


 (b) Write short notes on nny two of the following :


(i) Access lists for file protection


(ii) System maintenance


(iii) Integration testing


( c  )  Suggest (with examples) any 2 requirement gathering techniques.

10 . (a) Explain Prototyping model in detail. What 8 is the difference between unit testing and integration testing ? Explain with the help of suitable examples.



(b) Write a shell program to calculate the  average marks and percentage of a student in five subjects.


(  c  ) Explain different types of operating systems  and give one example for each.


(d) Explain the steps and tasks performed by a  two - pass assembler. Write one advantage of single - pass assembler over two – pass assembler and vice - versa.


 11 .(a)  What is the criteria to select a CASE tool ? Explain any two CASE tools.


 (b) What do you mean by feasibility analysis ?  Explain different categories of feasibility analysis in brief.


 12 . Write down UNIX commands for the following operations :


(i) To save the output of a command in a file.


(ii)  To change the password of a user.


(iii) To kill a running process.


(iv) To list down the files and directions.


(b) What is dynamic memory allocation ? What  is the advantage of dynamic memory allocation over static memory allocation and vice - versa ?


(  c   )  Explain UNIX file system in brief.


13. (a) Draw the architecture and explain any four key features of X - WINDOWS.


(b) How is a directory in WINDOWS  categorised in terms of its file structure ? Give diagrams.


14. . (a) Write an algorithm and draw a flowchart to find the greatest prime number less than 512.


(b) What is a deadlock ? Explain essential  requirements or conditions for deadlock to occur.


15  .   (a) Design an algorithm and draw a corresponding flow . chart to check whether a given year is a leap year or not. 7



(b) Ust the conditions that characterize a deadlock. Explain the occurence and avoidance of deadlock


   graphically among 3 processes and 3 resources


(d) What is a debugging system ? Describe the functions and capabilities of an interactive debugging sysiem.


16  . (a) Define the main differences between Network operating system and Distributed operating system.


 (b) Construct a Context Free Grammar for the following


'C' statements : 6


(i) fuithmeticExpression


(ii)   For Loop


 17  . "[n multiprogramming environment, sharing of code and data can greatly reduce the real storage needed by a group of process€s to run efficiently." For each of the following gpes of systems, outline briefly how sharing can be implemented :


(i) Partition


(ii) Paging


(iii) Segmentation


18 .   (a) What is a system call ? Give four different examples  of system calls in UNIX operating system


. (b) Write a shell program to display the alternate digits in a 4 digit decimal number. 5



- 5, 9 are altemite digns


 6, 4 are alternate digits)


 19  .  (a)  What is the basic purpose of program control ? Explain the significance of Gantt chart and PERT charts with an example for each


(b) What is the basic philosophy of X-Windows ? How is it different from rest of the Guls


 20. (a)   Describe with the help of an example, the macro facility and its implementation

within an assembler.


(b) Consider the following processes in the ready queue (at the same time).



C-alculate the average tumaround time and average waiting time for the processes given by:


(i) FCFS


(ii) RR (quantum=2)


 (c) Explain the principle of the following Non-contiguous Allocation schemes :


(i)  Linked allocation


(ii) Indexed allocation


(d) Write a shell program to find the average marks secured by a student in 5 subjects.


(e) Give notes (in brief) on :


(i) vi editor


(ii) Next software


21  .   (a) Give UNIX commands for :


(i)  to kill the last background job ?


(ii) delete all files in the current directory and subdirectory.


(iii) to go to end of line in vi editor.


(b) What is the role of a System Analyst in Software Engineering ?


(  c  )   Describe the role of 4GUs in the applications development.


 22.  (a) Write an algorithm and draw a corresponding flowchart to reverse a given

4diglt number.


(b) With the help of a neat diagram, explain the address translation scheme in a

segmented system.


23  . (a) Explain various mechanisms (atleast two) to protect a file in a multi-user environment.


With the help of a suitable example for eactu explain the features and objective of the




(i)  Gantt chart


(ii) PERT chart


24  .  Give a brief note on file and directory  structure in UNIX.


Write short notes on a?ry tuto of the following:


(i)  Virtual Memory


(ii) Pipes and Filters in UNIX

(iii) X-Windows


25 . (a)

Design an algorithm and draw a corresponding flq,v chart to generate the fibonacci series.



(b) Write a shell program directorie s / files existing us€r. to count the number of in a gir,ren directory by the us€r.


(c) Explain the concept of Demand paging. Also, discuss the implementation of demand paging scheme with

the help of a diagram.


(d) Mention the general principles of systems investigation and also explain all the stages of systems



26.  . (a) Write context free grammar (CFG) for a "Goto statement" and "For loop" in C language.


(b) What is meant by Segmentation ? With the help of a diagram, explain the address translation scheme in

a segmentation system.


27  .  . (a) Explain the use of the following UNIX commands, their syntax and an example for each :



(i) nohup


(ii) cp


(iii) mv


(iv) rmdir


(v) cal



(b) What are Fourth Generation Languages (4GL's) ? How do thny help to solve the problems ? Also, mention their limitations.


28  .(a)   Write a shell program to check whether the given substring' is existing in the string or not



(b) Exlain the following  Disk scheduring argorithms with


(i) FCFS


(ii) Shortest seek time first scheduling


(iii) Scan scheduling



29  .  (a)   Explain the functional overview of the Macintosh toolbox. List any two applications which can be run on this O/S.


(b) With the help of an example application, explain the client /server model.


30  .   (a) Explain the working of a 2-pass assembler in detail .


(b) Write a shell program to copy the contents of fileT to anothe r f ileZ. Also write an algorithm for it.



(c) Explain the client-server model with the help of an example application



(d) Explain the following concepts in UNIX with an example for each :


 (i) filters


(ii) pipes


(iii) file permissions


(e) Explain various stages of systems investigation


 31  .  (a)  Explain the concept of 'Bufferins' with the help of a digram.


(b) How can compaction be a solution for the external fragmentation problem in memory management ?

Illustrate with the help of an example.


33. (a)   Explain with suitable examples r :


(i) inodes


(ii) file structure in UNIX


(b) What do you understand by syntax and sernantic analysis ? Explain in detail.


34. (a) What is 4GL ? What are its limitations ? How can 4GLs help in solving the software problems ?


 (b) Define the following I.JNIX commands

(i) echo


(ii) cat


(iii) ls


(iv) cc


(v) admin


35. (a) List and explain the mechanism to support the file protection in multiuser environment.

(b) Lisl and explain any five important qualities of a software product.


36  . (a) The contents of four 8-bit registers AL, BL, CL and DI- in hexadecimal notation are F2, Fn 89 and EA respectively. What will be the values of these registers after executing the following

micro-operation sequence :


Note  :  If you haue taken any ossum ptions, mention them


(b) * Write a program in assembly language (8086) that calculates the sum of and storeS the sum of the above series in a user defined data item.

(c) What is a multiplexer ? Design and explain the functioning of a 4 x 1 multiplexer by giving its truth table, logic diagram and block diagrarn.

(d) Design a 4 bit arithmetic circuit using 4 full adders and 4 multiplexers for carrying, out the frollowing micro-operations


(i) Add


(ii) A,Cd with carry


(iii) Subtract


(iv) Subtract with borrow


(v) Transfer


(vi) Increment


Note :  Mention the ossum ptions made, if any.


37. (a)  Draw the block diagram of INTEL 8086 microprocessor and explaln the two functional units

(Bus Interface Unit and the Execution Unit).


(b) With the help of a block diagram explain the polling implementation of a system bus.


38.  ( a  )  Define Vector processing and Vector computers. Mention at least 4 applications of vector processing. Explain the vector instruction format with the help of an example.


(b) Write a program in 8086 assembly language to sort a given list of 'n' integers.


 39 . (a) With the helP of an example,explain  RISC  Pipelining.


 (b) with the help of the truth-table and logic diagram, explain the functioning of a D-flip-flop.


 39. Explain the following along with their usage :


 (i) HYPercube interconnection


(ii) Cache coherence


(iii) SPARC architecture


(iv) Wilkes Control Unit


(v) Decoder

COMPUTER NETWORKS 1) Draw a hybrid topology having a star backbone with four ring networks.

2) Make a diagram (topology) of the network existing in your centre showing the various nodes, and what they actually represent (Computer, Printer, Hub, Router, Switches). Also show how this network is connected with another network (LAN,WAN). What is the Internet bandwidth of the network ? What network OS is used ?

3) Draw a hybrid topology having a star backbone with three bus networks.
(a) Carefully examine the network interface card of your node and write the detailed specification.
(b) Write IP address of your machine.

4)Draw a fully connected Five node networks. How many links are there ?

5) (a) Write all the steps for file sharing mechanism on your machine.

(b) Write the specification of hubs used in networking of the Lab.

6) Draw a .hybrid topology having a ring network backbone with 4 bus networks.

7) (a) Write all the steps to share and access the printer in the network environment.
(b) How can you check the MAC address of your machine ?

8) (a) Draw a fully connected 4 node networks. How many links are there ? (b) Draw a hybrid topology having a ring network with 3 bus networks.

9) (a) Write all the steps for assigning IP address to your machine.

(b) Write the specification of the following devices of your study centre being used in networking.
(i) Hub
(ii) UTP cable

10) (a) Draw a fully connected 6 node networks. How many links are there ? (b) Draw a hybrid topology having a star backbone with 3 ring networks.

11)(a) Write the specification of the following devices of your study centre being used in
(i) Router (ii) Network Printer
(b) Write all the steps for accessing data from another computer in a network.

12 (i) Write all the steps for enabling file sharing mechanism on your machine
(ii) What do you understand by these specifications.
10 base 2 hubs
10 base T hubs

13) Write complete specification of your network interface cards.

14) Write all the specifications of routers, hubs and switches of your study centre.

15) (i) What is IP address of your machine ? Which class it belongs to ?
(ii) What is IP address of "" ? Which class it belongs to ?

16) List the H/W components which have been used for the networking of your program centre and write all its specification.

17) Write at least two initial steps for troubleshooting a network.

18) Write all the steps to connect two computers with network interface cards

19) Explain the followings :
(i)Rj - 4s
(ii) Category 3, 4 or 5 UTP

Software engineering
1) Suppose we wish to computerize the activities of study centers, which offer various programmers of the university. The activities are as follows :

(i) Forwarding the counselor's biodata to Regional Centre.
(ii) Schedule the classes (both theory and practical)
(iii) Identify Practical Centers.
(iv) Collect TMA's from students and get it evaluated \l the counselors
(v) Student's enquiry
(vi) Dispatch of Award lists of TMA's to University

For the above mentioned system,

(1) Develop SRS.
(2, Draw DFDs upto second level.
(3) Identify the software modules and their functions.
(4) Propose a testing strategy for any two software modules mentioned in above.

(3)Make assumptions, wherever necessary.

(b) List at least five important qualities of software product and process. 

( c ) What is Agility ? List all the principles for those who want to achieve agility. 

(d) With the help of an example, explain the significance of the PERT chart.

2) What is a design method ? What are its five components ?

3) What is 4GL ? Explain at least three areas which are impacted by the advent of 4Gts.

4) "independence is measured using two qualitative criteria Cohesion and Coupling." Explain both of them in detail.

5) Explain how version control combines procedures and tools to manage different versions of configuration objects that are created during the s/w engineering process.

6) The requirements engineering process is accomplished through' the execution of functions like Inception, Elicitation, Elaboration' Negotiation, Specification, validation and Management' Explain the role and significance of each of the functions'

7) Explain the purpose of each o{ the system tests given below 
(i) Recovery testing
(iii) Security testing
(iii) Stress testing
(iv) Performance testing

8) Write short notes on:
(i) The Incremental Model
(iii) Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
(iv) Basis Path Testing

9) Income Tax department wants to automate its system. It has the following requirements
(i) Filing of annual IT forms through Internet
(ii) Filing of PAN card form through Internet
(iii) Online discussion form to handle different queries
(iv) Specify the three use-cases.
(v) Identify the classes and prepare the class diagram for it.

10) What is project scheduling ? Explain at least three functions associated with project scheduling.

11) Explain COCOMO model.

12) What is the importance of software documentation standards ? List any three

13) How is re-engineering different from reverse engineering ? Explain the restructuring technique for re-engineering with the help of an example.

14) List various McCall's Quality Factors. What do plain with example.

15) Justify the following statements :
(ii) Software Availability :
IMTTF/(MTTF + MTTR)I x700o/o

16) List any five principles for data specification used in data design at the component level.

17) Consider an Examination System for a school. It performs the following operations.
(a) Seating-plan generation and room allocation for students and invigilators.
(b) Maintaining records of different courses,student attendance and evaluators.
(c) Distributing and collecting answer scripts to/from different evaluators.
(d) Maintaining l Displaying student marks.
Based on the above specification, answer the following 
(a) Prepare SRS document for this system. 
(b) Design and draw DFDs upto two levels. 
( c ) Design a complete ER diagram with various components.

18) Write short notes on the following : 5
(a) Software Quality Assurance
(b) Data Coupling
(c) Cost Benefit Analysis
(d) Decision Tree
(e) Risk Management

19) ABC Multiplex movie theatre wants to automate its system. It has the following requirements to be fulfilled :

n It has 4 auditoriums (theatres).
n Normally new film releases/change of the films will be on Fridays only.
n Each auditorium will screen 4 movies daily.
n To provide the information about all the movies online on its website.
n To provide the online ticketing facility through credit cards or debit cards.
n Allow to book for families or in groups
n To offer some exclusive offers for its members.
n Should automatically send a newsletter every week about the latest information about the movies etc. and through e-mail to its members.

(20) For the above mentioned system :

(i) Prepare SRS document for this system.
(ii) Mention Hardware and Software requirements.
(iii) Design and draw DFD's upto two levels.
(iv) Design a complete ER diagram with various entities, relationships, cardinality etc.

(b) Define CMM. Explain various maturity levels in CMM.
(c) With the help of a diagram, describe the layered technology approach to software engineering.

21) "The prototype can serve as the first system. It is true that both the customers and developers like the model. Users get a feel for the actual system and developers get to build something immediately". In support with the above statement, explain the prototyping model and also suggest for which kind of projects, this paradigm is suitable. Also mention any two reasons where this paradigm can create problems. Make assumptions wherever needed?

(22) Compare and contrast size-oriented metrics with function-oriented metrics?
23) What do you mean by cyclomatic complexity ? How do we compute it ?

24) List the objectives of the Formal Technical Review (FTR). Also, mention the review reporting and record keeping process of FT& briefly.

25) What is the significance of user interface design for any project. Explain briefly, the user interface design guidelines.

26) Explain the following testing techniques :
(i) Unit Testing
:(ii) Integration testing

27) Write short note on the following :
(a) Temporal Cohesion
(b) Software Reliability
(c) Risk Management
(d) Reverse Engineering
(e) CASE Tools

28) A University's reception wants to automate the Visitor's Registration Process. It has the following requirements to be ful filled 
(a) To make note of the visitor's details, purpose of visit, time.
(b)Checking process whether she/he has taken the prior appointment of the visiting official
(c) To schedule the appointments
(d) To cancel the appointments
(e) To divert the visitors to other officials depending upon the purpose
(f) Follow-up activities after the visit.
(g) Report generation.

for the above mentioned system.
(i) Prepare the JRS document for this system
(ii) Mention hardware and software requirements.
(iii) Design and draw DFD's upto two levels.
(iv) Design a complete FR diagram with 4 various entities, relationships, cordinality etc.

29) What is the significance of software 8 configuration management ? Discuss the
role of CASE tools in S/W project management

30) List the cost estimation techniques explain any one of them.

31) Define the term "Risk". How will you 7 identify it ?

32) When can we say that the Software Project is amenable for Modular design ? Justify your answer.

33) (a) Explain equivalence partitioning.
(b) With the help of an example, explain the Flow Graph Notation.

34) Explain the following testing techniques :
(i) Stress testing
(ii) Performance testing

(35) Often, Software development companies outsource the job of testing the software developed by them. Why do they outsource ? Why don't they test software developed by themselves ?

(36) Write a short note on the following :
(a)Graph-based testing methods
(b)McCall's Quality Factors
(c) Cohesion

(37) Design a system for Enrolment Process of a Distance Education University.
(i) Draw DFD up to level
(ii) Prepare SRS document for the same.

(37) Which phase of the SDLC is considered to be the most important phase ? Discuss the reason for its importance.

(38) Describe several specific actions that should be taken during software development to achieve the maintainability of the software that is developed

(39) Explain what is meant by critical path scheduling. Describe the process of creating
Gantt charts. Give an example.

(40) Explain use cases and use case diagrams and how they can be used to model system

(42) A desirable property of requirements is that 8 it should be testable. Explain why testable requirements add in the production of high quality software.

(43) Discuss in detail the various software process models.

44) Explain McCabe's cyclomatic complexity with example.

45) Does programming languages have an impact on S/w project planning, analysis,
design, coding, testing and maintenance ? Discuss ?

46)Explain the following :
(a) Debugger
(b) Product Vs Process
(c) CASE Tools
(d)Cocomo Model
(e) Risk Management


1 What are the preconditions for applying binary search on any list containing integer values ? Write the algorithm and manually run it on the following list of number 

11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

2 What is worst case complexity of the above algorithm ?

3 How can a polynomial be represented with the help of a linked list ? Write an algorithm to multiply two polynomials of degree 'm' and degree 'n' ?

4 Write a program to implement a static stack. Also, mention few applications of stack ?

5 Differentiate between the following 
(i) Space and Time complexity
(ii) Indexed file organisation and Indexed sequential file organisation

6 Write an algorithm to balance a Red-Black tree after deleting a node ?

7 How are the deletions performed in Binary Search Tree ? Explain each case of deletion with an example

8 Write algorithm to insert elements in a B-Tree. Make B-Tree using your algorithm for the following list of elements ?

2. 4, 9, 8, 7, 6,3, 1, 5, 10

9 Two Binary trees are similar if they are both empty or if they are both non-empty and left and right subtrees are similar. Write an algorithm to determine if two Binary trees are similar?

10 Explain the factors involved in the selection of a particular file organization for user. What is sequential file ? Why are sequential files stored in disk cylinder by cylinder ?

11 What are the limitations of a Binary Search Tree (BST) ? How does AVL tree help in this regard ?

12 Give an AVL tree for which the deletion of a node requires two double rotations. Draw the tree and explain why two rotations are needed ?

13 Write a function in 'C' to insert a node in a linked list at the following position 
(a) at the beginning
(b) at the end

14 What are the different types of hash functions How can clustering involved in linear probing be avoided ? Explain any two methods.

15 Write an algorithm to sort an array
25, 15, 30, 9, 99, 20, 26
using insertion sort . Also write the steps involved in it ?

16 Write an algorithm to discuss the implementation of breadth first traversal method of a graph?

17 Write algorithms for the following 
(i) To insert a node at a given position in a circular linked list.
(ii) To delete the first node from circular linked list.

18 Write an algorithm to create a Binary Tree. The algorithm should accept elements and display Binary Tree with those elements ?

19 What is a linear queue ? Write an algorithm for adding an element to a linear queue .

20 Write a 'C' program to implement priority queue using arrays, check for overflow and underflow conditions ?

21 Write an algorithm for the implementation of multiple stacks in an array?

22 Write a program in 'C' for the implementation of a Doubly Linked List ?

23 Explain sequential file organisation. What are various operations that can be
performed on it ? Also, list any two disadvantages of it.

24 Write algorithm for Heap sort. Also run your algorithm manually and show how sorting is done by your algorithm for the following sets of data ?

1 6 , 1 4 , 1 0 , 8 , 7 , 9 , 3 , 2 , 4 , 7

25 Compare Arrays with linked list by mentioning the advantages and limitations of both?
26 Why is Red-Black tree considered a better data structure than Binary Search tree and AVL tree ? Write algorithm to insert a node in Red-black tree. Take proper example also.

27 Sort the following numbers using Quick sort algorithm. Show all intermediate steps. 
10, 70, 2, 32, 11, 48, 6, 19

28 Differentiate between singly linked list and Doubly linked list. Write algorithm to insert and delete elements in a singly linked list ?

29 What are the differences between sequential and direct file organisation ? Under what conditions, if any, is it advantageous to have the file organised as a direct file rather than sequential file ?

30 Write short notes on the following with an example 
(a) Red Black Tree
(b) Multiple stacks
(c) Applications of Tree
(d) Kruskal's Algorithm.
(e) Binary search

31 Define the term "Complexity". For what types of applications is Time Complexity Critical and for what types of applications is Space Complexity Critical?

32 Write an algorithm to implement the following functions of a dequeue. Also, give an example to show the working of these functions ?
(i) Insert Element
(ii) Create DEQUEUE
(iii) Delete Element

33 Write an algorithm for multiplication of two sparse matrices?

34 What is cylinder - surface indexing ? Explain it with an example. Also, write its merits and demerits.

35 Define Abstract Data Type, and give two examples of it ?

36 Explain the following using an example
(i) Breadth First Search
(ii) AVL Tree

37 Write a program to store the roll numbers and names of students in a binary search
tree. Write a function to accept a number and display the name of the student, whose
roll number matches with this number. Give suitable messages if the roll number does not
exist in the binary search tree ?
38 Write a program to simulate a circular queue using pointers with functions for insertion, deletion. (Use singly linked list)?

39 Write an algorithm for pushing an element into a stack?

40 Write a program to find the frequency of words in a given text. The list of words and
their corresponding frequency should be in the alphabetical order of words ?

41 Explain the properties and operations of AA trees ?

42 What are the essential features of a binary tree ? Explain, how a general tree can be converted into a binary tree ?

43 Write an algorithm to balance a Red-Black tree after deleting a node ?

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